Dolly

Dolly

Gentilissima Dottoressa De Benedictis,
Dolly ora è serena e senza più male.
Ci ha lasciati ieri pomeriggio e l’unica cosa che mi consola è che non ha sofferto.
E’ spirata con noi accanto, in un tempo brevissimo, con un solo, lieve, flebile lamento.
Desidero ringraziarLa per tutto: per avermi indirizzata al Dottor D.per avermi rincuorato ogni volta che Le ho scritto, per essersi presa cura di Dolly e di me.
Le sensazioni sono strane, ieri sera mi sentivo quasi sollevata perché le sofferenze della piccolina erano finite, mi si era disteso anche il viso, oggi ho in me un enorme, incolmabile vuoto.
In questi mesi di malattia di Dolly, malattia che ad un certo punto ha iniziato a galoppare, ho anch’io pensato all’eutanasia, chiedendomi nel contempo “ma chi sono io per decidere quando una creatura non deve più vivere?”.
Eppure ci ho pensato, come unico modo per evitarle sofferenze che aumentavano di giorno in giorno, specialmente da Natale in poi.
Belliximi!!! 002
Se il male fosse stato da un’altra parte forse non ci avrei mai pensato, ma in bocca…. povera creatura, una duplice atrocità: il dolore e la crescente difficoltà nel nutrirsi, proprio a lei che è sempre stata una gran mangiona, che amava la pappa più di ogni altra cosa al mondo, dopo noi.
Ma non potevo decidere.
La cagnolina era dei miei genitori e mio papà non ne voleva sentire parlare, nemmeno potendo contare sulla condivisione con me del dolore/responsabilità di una eventuale simile decisione.
E’ vissuto nella speranza, o nell’illusione, che guarisse, e questo sino poco prima che ci lasciasse, nonostante fosse immobile da giorni, nonostante non toccasse cibo da più di una settimana, nonostante vomitasse e avesse diarrea pur non mangiando, e molte altre cose che non elenco perché le conosce fin troppo bene, purtroppo.
Quel che ho potuto fare, è stato cercare di alleviarle il dolore, amarla, accudirla, coccolarla, pulirla, darle i rimedi, essere sfinita ma essere lì, con lei.

Questo in parte mi consola, in parte mi sconforta perché penso “se fossi stata più tempestiva…” Ma devo accettare il peso del mio rimorso e dei miei 1000 dubbi: cerco sempre di non lasciare niente al caso ma ogni situazione ha molteplici risvolti e ……la storia è infinita.
I nostri amici animali non si pongono tanti quesiti, ci amano e basta, e ci accorgiamo di quanto nel momento in cui non sono più con noi (ho avuto l’impressione che Dolly non volesse lasciarci, forse per questo, nonostante la situazione, ha resistito tanto).
Davanti agli occhi, nel cuore e nella mente c’è la sua immagina. Per i primi tempi sarà quella degli ultimi giorni, quelli della sofferenza, poi gradatamente ritornerà l’immagine serena dei tanti anni trascorsi insieme, del musetto gioioso, degli occhi “parlanti”, delle orecchie diritte e attente, della codina che andava ad elica appena mi vedeva, e di tutte le meravigliose e impagabili emozioni, gioie e risate che ci ha regalato.
C’è una ragazza, Testimone di Geova, che mi citofona spesso per lasciarmi le loro riviste, solo che da qualche mese mi pone insistentemente un quesito (ironia della sorte): “perché esiste la sofferenza?”, lei sostiene che è un disegno di Dio ben motivato.

Comunque stiano le cose sono del parere che far soffrire creature innocenti e indifese, a qualunque specie appartengano, è crudele e l’unico essere crudele è l’uomo, verso la sua e tutte le altre specie viventi.
Lei è una persona speciale Dottoressa, ha il dono di aprire il suo cuore all’ascolto. E per questo le sono infinitamente grata, così come le sono grati i Suoi piccoli pazienti che sono i nostri migliori amici. Un bacio al cavallo adottato e a tutti i suoi amici a 2 e 4 zampe, alati e non.
La invidio, in senso buono, per l’ambito in cui vive. Le dona serenità, la stessa che Lei riesce a trasmettere e infondere in chi, come me, ha avuto la fortuna di conoscerLa in un momento delicato e difficile.
Un saluto e un abbraccio, con sincera stima e affetto!
Valeria
fritz 001

EFFETTI DI DILUIZIONI OMEOPATICHE NELLE PIANTE E IL LORO POTENZIALE USO NELLE PATOLOGIE VEGETALI.

EFFETTI DI DILUIZIONI OMEOPATICHE NELLE PIANTE E IL LORO POTENZIALE USO NELLE PATOLOGIE VEGETALI.

granuli in acquaEFFETTI DI DILUIZIONI OMEOPATICHE NELLE PIANTE E IL LORO POTENZIALE USO NELLE PATOLOGIE VEGETALI.

EFFECTS OF HOMEOPATHIC DILUTIONS ON PLANTS AND THE POTENCIAL USE OF HOMEOPATHY ON PLANT DISEASES. Lucietta Betti1, Grazia Trebbi1, Lisa Lazzarato1, Maria Grazia Fantino1, Daniele Nani2. 1Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies, Bologna University, Italy; 2Società Italiana Medicina Antroposofica, Milano, Italy. E-mail: lucietta.betti@unibo.it

Most criticism about homeopathy concerns the lack of a scientific basis and theoretical model. Plant-based bioassays could provide a suitable tool for basic experimentation in homeopathy because they overcome the main disadvantages of clinical trials, such as placebo effects, ethical difficulties, consumption of time, low number of replications, high costs [1]. Scientific literature on the effects of homeopathy on plants provides a limited number of papers. An extensive and critical review on this topic was written in 1984 by Scofield [2], therefore only subsequent literature will be here considered and divided into “germination/growth models”, “phytopathological models” and “field trials” (table 1). Many of the reported plant-based bioassays have a good methodological structure, are supported by statistical analyses and generally show significant results, at least with some of the treatments tested. Unfortunately some papers, cited in different articles and concerning both germination/growth models [3-5] and phytopathological ones [6-12], are hard to find and for this reason they are not included in table 1.
Germination/growth models
Among the numerous plant model systems studied, the classic test of germination and growth has been quoted as a basic model for research on homeopathy since the pioneering work of Kolisko on wheat [13] and many experiments have been performed with this species [14-20]. Moreover, wheat germination is the theme jointly investigated by the Betti and Baumgartner research groups: reproduction trials were performed resulting in significant but opposite effects [19; 20]. Experiments on other species have been carried out, evaluating growth parameters [21-34] and biochemical responses [22-24; 28]. A stable and reliable test system is represented by in vitro growth of yeast [31-34], which seem to react to certain potentised substances by changing its growth kinetics [34].
Phytopathological models
Most of available papers focussed on fungal infections [35-41]: following homeopathic treatments, a decrease of disease symptoms, post-harvest losses, fungal germination and respiration rate of germinating spores were evidenced.
Table 1. Summary of plant bioassays with homeopathic treatments: references (in brackets), experimental main features and observed effects are reported

Germination/Growth models
Reference Species Treatment Working variable Effect
Betti et al., 1994 [14] wheat dH As203 germination +
Pongratz & Endler, 1994 [15] wheat dH AgNO3, PC germination, shoot growth +
Betti et al., 1997[16] wheat dH As2O3, PC shoot growth +
Pongratz et al., 1998 [17] wheat dH AgNO3 shoot growth +
Brizzi et al., 2000 [18] wheat dH As2O3, PC germination +/-
Brizzi et al., 2005 [19] wheat dH As2O3 shoot growth +
Binder et al., 2005 [20] wheat dH As2O3 shoot growth –
Hamman et al., 2003 [21] barley cH gibberellic acid germination, root and shoot growth +
Carvalho et al., 2003 [22] feverfew dH Arnica montana shoot growth, parthenolide content +, –
Carvalho et al., 2004 [23] feverfew
cH Natrum muriaticum, nosode shoot growth,
chlorophyll and proline content n.s.
+/-
Carvalho et al., 2005 [24] feverfew cH Arnica montana shoot growth, parthenolide content n.s., –
Projetti et al., 1985 [25] lentil cH CuSO4 root growth +
Bornoroni, 1991[26] oat IAA, cH CaCO3, PC shoot growth +/ n.s.
Endler & Pongratz, 1991 [27] African violet dH IBA, PC root and leaf growth +
Andrade, 2001[28] chambà • homeopathic treatments coumarins content +
Bonato & da Silva, 2003 [29] radish cH, McH Sulfur shoot and root growth +
Baumgartner et al., 2004 [30] dwarf pea dK, dH plant hormones, PC shoot growth +
Steffen 1984 [31] yeast dH Ag NO3, CuSO4, HgCl2, NaCl in vitro growth n.s.
Steffen 1985 [32] yeast cH pulsatilla in vitro growth n.s.
Hagelberg 1987 [33] yeast homeopathic treatments * in vitro growth n.s.
Scherr et al., 2006 [34] yeast 14 substances in dH potencies, PC growth kinetics +/-, n.s.
Phytopathological models
Reference Species/pathogen Treatment Working variable Effect
Saxena et al., 1987 [35] reed okra/ seed-borne fungi cH Thuja, nitric acid, Sulphur, Calcarea carb., Teucrium Q fungal spore germination –
Khanna & Chandra, 1989 [36] mango, guava, tomato/ Pestalotia spp., Fusarium roseum homeopathic treatments and adjuvants post-harvest losses –
Khanna & Chandra, 1992 [37] different fungi•• dH treatments spore respiration rate,
organic acid pool in spores –
+/-
Aggarval et al., 1993 [38] wild taro/
Phytophthora colocasiae homeopathic treatments** disease symptoms, fungal growth and spore germination

Rivas et al., 1996 [39] wheat,tomato/ Alternaria solani cH treatments*** seed and spore germination +/-
Rolim et al., 2001 [40] apple/Podosphaera leucotricha cH treatments**** powdery mildew symptoms –
Diniz et al., 2006 [41] tomato/ Phytophthora infestans cH isopathic treatment late blight symptoms n.s.
Cheema et al., 1986 [42] papaya/Papaya mosaic virus homeopathic treatments disease symptoms –
Cheema et al., 1993 [43] tomato/Tobacco mosaic virus Clerodendrum aculeatum, cH Thuja disease symptoms –
Betti et al., 2003 [44] tobacco/Tobacco mosaic virus dH As2O3, PC virus-induced hypersensitive lesions –
Sukul & Sukul, 1999 [45] cowpea/Meloidogyne incognita cH Cina plant growth,
nematode infection +

Datta, 2006 [46] mulberry/ M. incognita cH Cina plant growth, nematode infection +, –
Sukul et al., 2006 [47] lady’s finger/ M. incognita cH Cina, Santonin, Ethanol nematode infection
root-protein and -water content –

Field trials
Reference Species/pathogen Treatment Working variable Effect
Kaine, 1991 [50] rye grass cH Sulphur, Silicea, Carbo vegetalis plant growth n.s.
Trebbi et al., in preparation [51] cabbage/Alternaria brassicicola dH As2O3 disease severity –
dH, cH, McH = decimal, centesimal, hundred thousand hannemanian potency; dK = decimal korsakovian potency; PC = potentized control (as additional control); IAA = indole acetic acid; IBA = indole butric acid
• = Justitia pectoralis; •• = Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium roseum, Gloeosporium psidii, Pestalotia mangiferae, Pestalotia psidii;
*= Sulphur, Arnica montana, Chamomilla, Bryonia alba, Euphrasia officinalis, Pulsatilla; ** =Kali iodatum, Arsenicum album, Blatta orientalis, Thuja occidentalis; ***= Arsenicum album, Calcarea, Cuprum, Ferrum metallicum, Lycopodium, Natrum, Phosphorus, Selenium, Silicea, Sulphur; **** = Kali iodatum, Lachesis trigonocephalus, Staphysagria, Sulphur, Oidium lycopersici
+ = stimulating or increasing effect; – = inhibiting or decreasing effect; +/- = different effects according to the potency used or plant physiological conditions

A few studies took into account viral infections [42-44] and in this case, too, a weaker symptomathology was observed. In particular, in blind, randomized experiments using tobacco plants, carrying tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistant gene N, inoculated with TMV, a significant enhancement of plant resistance was obtained following As2O3 dH 5 and 45 potencies [44]. As far as nematode infection is concerned, a few papers are available as well [45-47]: plants treated with homeopathic preparations showed improved growth (in terms of shoot and root length) and reduced nematode infection (in terms of root gall number and nematode population in root and soil). Root- and leaf-protein content and root-water content are also affected by homeopathic treatments.
Field trials
Scientific literature provides very few and outdated descriptions of field trials. Aside from two studies on trees affected by virus [48] or fungus [49], the only paper easily available is that of Kayne [50], who reported the results of a field trial on rye grass. The application of homeopathic sprays (cH Sulphur and mixture of cH Sulphur, Silicea and Carbo vegetalis) did not give significant effects on plant growth, however some methodological hints for testing homeopathic treatments emerged: the choice of remedy, potency and frequency of application is crucial and should be made with great care to ensure the best chance of success. As there are no guidelines for plants like those of Materia Medica for humans much more experimentation is needed.
The reduction of copper salts in organic agriculture following European directives (Commission Regulation EC no. 473/2002) provided the context for a 3 year project (2003-2006), financed by the Marche region (Italy), on biological control of Alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola in cauliflower. The disease appears on the leaves and cauliflower heads as dark brown spots. In order to evaluate the effects of homeopathic treatments on fungus infection, experiments in phytotron and a field trial were carried out. Plants were artificially inoculated by spraying a fungal suspension (1×107 conidia ml-1) on the leaves. The effect of homeopathic treatments was compared with those of copper oxiclorure at different concentrations (0.3, 1, and 3 g/l), the control being water treatment. All these treatments were sprayed weekly on the leaves 3 times before and 4 times after fungal inoculation. In phytotron, treatments with As2O3 dH 35 and 45, AgNO3 dH 35, 36, 45 and 46, Sulfur dH6, cH5 and 201, Cuprum dH5, isopathic cH4 were tested. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) did not show any significant result; nevertheless, the more marked reduction of leaf symptoms vs. control was observed in both measurements (13 and 18%, respectively) in plants treated with As2O3 dH 35 (Figure 1A). Copper oxiclorure treatments induced a significant reduction (p<0.05 or p<0.01, ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post-test) of disease severity at all concentrations. In field trial [51], each treatment (As2O3 dH 35, copper oxiclorure 0.3, 1 and 3 g/l and water as a control) was replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. Disease assessments on cauliflower heads, performed in 3 successive times (Figure 1B), showed in the last measurement a significant reduction (46%, p<0.05) of disease symptoms for both As2O3 dH 35 and copper oxiclorure 3 g/l. Since fungal inoculation was performed on the leaves before flowering, we can hypothesize that homeopathic treatment As2O3 dH 35 induced a plant resistance increase to fungal infection. The similar symptom reduction due to copper oxiclorure 3 g/l could be explained as a inhibiting effect of the treatment on fungal spore germination. These results need further investigations but they seem to support the possibility of an agricultural application of homeopathy. The privileged target of agrohomeopathy could be small farms (and in particular, those of nutraceutical and herbalist sectors) practicing organic and sustainable agriculture that strive to be environmentally responsible, economically viable, and socially just.Conclusions and perspectives The literature on homeopathy and plants is limited in comparison with medical studies and not as easily available. Nevertheless, interest in this field appears to be growing in recent years and several projects are in progress, mainly in Central and South America. In general, the potential prospects for homeopathic treatments in agriculture can be considered promising, but much more work is needed especially at a field level, since the influence of environmental and agronomical factors (temperature, drought, humidity, plant cultivars and so on). might significantly change the quality of yields and thus the results of successive experimentations. Finally, we must stress that results of all research and projects, whether successful or not, should be made widely available so that others can learn from these, thus avoiding duplication and inefficiency. Moreover, replication of results and multicentre trials should be performed, to be published in international journals with an impact factor or wide circulation, to gain credibility and facilitate funding.References 1) Betti L, Borghini F, Nani D. Plant models for fundamental research in homeopathy. Homeopathy 2003; 92: 129-130 2) Scofield AM. Homeopathy and its potential role in agriculture, a critical review. Biol Agric Hortic 1984; 2: 1-50 3) Jana B. Effects of Thuja occidentalis on the mitotic activity of plant cell. Hahnemannian Gleanings 1985; 52: 24-28 4) Khan MI, Saify ZS, Hashmi RY. Wheat coleoptile elongation test for bioassay of homeopathic drugs. Pak J Bot 1991; 23: 26-32 5) Meneses Moreno N, et al. Influencia del Arsenicum album en la germinacion de las semillas de cafeto (Coffea arabica L.) Hom Méx 2004; 73: 3-7 6) Ray S. & Pradhan AK. Homeopathic drugs show nematicidal properties against tomato root-knot nematode in vitro. Hahnemannian Gleanings 1985; 52: 447-449 7) Sen K, Dasgupta MK. Antihelminthic homeopathic drugs. Indian J Nematol 1985; 15: 100-102 8) Kehri HK, Sudhir C, Chandra S. Control of Botryodiplodia rot of guava with a homeopathic drug. Nat Acad Sci Lett 1986; 9: 301-302 9) Rake K, et al. Effects of homeopathic drugs on seed mycoflora of wheat. Nat Acad Sci Lett 1989; 12: 39-41 10) Dutta AC. Plant responses to high homeopathic potencies in distilled water culture. ICCHOS Newsletter 1989; 3: 2-8 11) Panda RN, et al. Anti-fungal efficacy of homeopathic drugs and leaf extracts in brinjal. Environ Ecol 1996; 14: 292-294 12) Khanna KK & Chandra S. Homeopathic drugs in the control of some post-harvest diseases of fruits. J Indian Bot Soc 1997; 76: 169-172 13) Kolisko L. Physiologischer und physikalischer Nachweis der Wirksamkeit kleinster Entitaten (1923-1959). Arbeitsgem. Anthroposoph. Arzte. Stuttgart, 1959 14) Betti L, et al. A pilot statistical study with homeopathic potencies of Arsenicum album in wheat germination as a simple model. Br Hom J 1994; 83: 195-201 15) Pongratz W, Endler PC. Reappraisal of a classical botanical experiment in ultra high dilution research. Energetic coupling in a wheat model. Endler P C and Schulte J eds. Ultra High dilution. Physiology and Physics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 19-26, 1994 16) Betti L, et al. Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned with the same substance. Br Hom J 1997; 86: 86-89 17) Pongratz W, Nograsek A, Endler PC. Highly diluted agitated silver nitrate and wheat seedling development. Effect Kinetics of a process of successive agitation phases. Schulte J and Endler PC eds. Fundamental Research in Ultra High Dilution and Homeopathy. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 143-154, 1998 18) Brizzi M, et al. Statistical analysis of the effect of high dilutions of arsenic in a large data set from a wheat germination model. Br Hom J 2000; 89: 63-67 19) Brizzi M, et al. A biostatistical insight into the As2O3 high dilution effects on the rate and variability of wheat seedling growth. Forsch Komplementãrmed 2005; 12: 277-283 20) Binder M, Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A. The effects of a 45x potency of Arsenicum album on wheat seedling growth - a reproduction trial. Forsch Komplementãrmed 2005; 12: 284-291 21) Hamman B, Koning G, Him Lok K. Homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid and barley seed germination performance. Homeopathy 2003; 92: 140-144 22) Carvalho LM, et al. Effect of decimal potencies of homeopathy Arnica montana on plants of feverfew. Rev Bras Plantas Med 2003; 6: 46-50 23) Carvalho LM, et al. Effect of homeopathy on recovery of feverfew plants, Tanacetum partenium (L.) Schultz Bip, under water stress. Rev Bras Plantas Med 2004; 6: 20-27 24) Carvalho LM, et al. Effect of homeopathy Arnica montana, centesimal potencies, on plants of artemisia. Rev Bras Plantas Med 2005; 7: 33-36 25) Projetti ML, Guillemain J, Tetau M. Effects curatifs et préventifs de diluitions homéopathiques de sulfate de cuivre appliquées à des racines de lentilles pré- ou post-intoxiquées. Cahiers de Biotherapie 1985; 88: 21-27 26) Bornoroni C. Synergism of action between indolacetic acid (IAA) and highly diluted solutions of CaCO3 on the growth of oat coleoptiles. Berlin J Res Hom 1991; 1: 275-278 27) Endler PC, Pongratz W. Homeopathic effect of a plant hormone? A preliminary report. Berlin J Res Hom 1991; 1: 148-150 28) Andrade FMC. Efeito de homeopatias no crescimento e na produção de cumarina em chambà (Justicia pectoralis Jacq). Rev Bras Plantas Med 2001; 4:19-28 29) Bonato CM, da Silva EP. Effect of the homeopathic solution Sulfur on the growth and productivity of radish. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy 2003; 25: 259-263 30) Baumgartner S, Thumeysen A, Heusser P. Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. Forsch Komplementãrmed 2004; 11: 281-292 31) Steffen WA. Growth of yeast cultures as in vitro model for investigating homeopathic medicines. A critical assessment. Br Hom J 1984; 73:198-210 32) Steffen WA. Growth of yeast cultures as in vitro model for investigating homeopathic medicines. Some further studies. Br Hom J 1985; 74:132-140 33) Hagelberg E. The effect of homeopathic medicine on yeast growth. Br Hom J 1987; 76: 126-129 34) Scherr C, et al. Effects of potentised substances on growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Forsch Komplementãrmed 2006; 13: 298-306 35) Saxena A, Pandey ML, Gupta RC. Effect of certain homeopathic drugs on incidence of seed-borne fungi and seed germination of Abelmoschus esculentus. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 1987; 17: 191-192 36) Khanna KK, Chandra S. Further investigations on the control of storage rot of mango, guava and tomato fruits with ho meopathic drugs. Indian Phytopath 1989; 45: 348-353 37) Khanna KK, Chandra S. Effect of homeopathic drugs on respiration of germinating fungal spores. Indian Phytopath 1992; 45: 348-353 38) Aggarval A, Kalmesh T, Mehrotra RS. Control of taro blight and corn rot caused by Phytophtora colocasiae homeopathic drugs. Plant disease Research 1993; 8: 94-101 39) Rivas E, Cecena C, Guajardo G. Germinacion de ésporas de Alternaria solani y semillas de trigo y tomate. Boletin Mexicano de Homeopatia 1996; 29: 44-46 40) Rolim PRR, et al. Controle de oidio da macieira por preparacões homeopáticas. Fit Bras 2001; 26: 435-436 41) Diniz LP, et al. Avaliação de produtos alternativos para controle da requeima do tomateiro. Fit Bras 2006; 31: 171-179 42) Cheema SS, et al. Comparative efficacy of homeopathic drugs against papaya mosaic virus (PaMV) as foliar spray. Indian J Virol 1986; 2:132-135 43) Cheema SS, et al. Efficacy of various bio-products and chemical against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato and cucumber mosaic virus in bottle gourd. Plant Disease Research 1993; 8: 110-114 44) Betti L, et al. Effects of homeopathic arsenic on tobacco plant resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. Theoretical suggestions about system variability, based on a large experimental data set. Homeopathy 2003; 92: 195-202 45) Sukul NC, Sukul A. Potentized Cina reduced root-knot disease of cowpeas. Environ Ecol 1999; 17: 269-273 46) Datta SC. Effects of Cina on root-knot disease of mulberry. Homeopathy 2006; 95: 102-108 47) Sukul NC et al. Amelioration of root-knot disease of lady’s finger plants by potentized Cina and Santonin. Homeopathy 2006; 95: 144-147 48) Sinha EP. Agro-homeopathy. J Am Ins Hom 1976; 68: 37-40 49) McIvor G. Letters to the Editor. J Am Ins Hom 1980; 73: 43 & 48 50) Kayne S. An agricultural application of homeopathy. Br Hom J 1991; 80: 157-160 51) Trebbi G, et al. Effects of homeopathic dilutions on leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage: a field trial. In preparation